AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (2022)

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (1)

Here is their marine version:

https://teco2030.no/solutions/teco-marine-fuel-cell/

' Advanced fuel conditioning system, enabling operations on compressed and liquid H2, ammonia, methanol and other H2 based carriers.'

Dunno whether that might come in handy on trucks.
Cummins are doing different versions of their trucking engines, each one modified for different fuels, so presumably it might.

Posted by:Davemart |03 August 2022 at 02:43 AM

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (2)

The marine version would make a good backup power plant for a wind powered ocean vessel. One of my favorites from Sweden - the Oceanbird.
https://www.theoceanbird.com/the-oceanbird-concept/

Posted by:Gryf |03 August 2022 at 09:16 AM

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (3)

Hi Gryf

There was a recent article here about a fuel cell system for smaller boats, which interested me but I can't seem to spot again.

In fact, I must apologize to folk here for my memory, as the likes of you, sd, SJC, and EP patiently address my questions, and I often forget!

A case in point, you referred to the use of LOHCs in trains, and I blathered on in reply, when ages ago, I find on re-reading some articles and comments, you posted this excellent link:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ese3.646

It looks as though there is good prospect of solving the issues, and that when I was repeating that the system of compressed hydrogen works, the distances etc could be increased and safety and convenience enhanced, which is why Siemens which already have compressed NG trains is developing LOHC ones:

https://www.environmentalleader.com/2021/07/siemens-tests-lohc-technology-for-hydrogen-trains/

So I am not only the slow student at the back of the class, but the forgetful one too!

Thanks everybody, for bearing with me.

Posted by:Davemart |03 August 2022 at 09:48 AM

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (4)

' Siemens which already have compressed NG trains is developing LOHC ones:'

S/be 'compressed H2 trains'

Doh!

(Video) HyTruck | Fuel Cell System

Posted by:Davemart |03 August 2022 at 10:10 AM

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Here is the article on smaller systems for boats I was thinking of:

https://fuelcellsworks.com/news/torqeedo-takes-on-hydrogen-fuel-cells-for-emission-free-boating-2/

Dunno I would fancy hydrogen though, methanol or something should be way better on a boat

Posted by:Davemart |03 August 2022 at 10:24 AM

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Davemart:

Siemens may be researching LOHC and may have developed hydrogen fuel cell railcars but they have already sold more than 60 of the battery electric version of the Miero railcar.

https://press.siemens.com/global/en/feature/battery-powered-mireo-plus-b-decarbonises-europes-railways

Posted by:sd |03 August 2022 at 08:04 PM

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (7)

@sd

My attitude has always been, if the product fits the application, use it!

What I tend to dispute is the wisdom of 'first principles' sweeping judgements for whole areas of technology.

So just as for road trucking, if a BEV train does the job, that's fine.

Alstom are the leaders in fuel cell trains, and those are actually in service, with other areas to introduce them after their early successes, and they give a rather greater operating envelope.

Whilst you are about, I'd like to pick your brains on the Piasecki PA 890

After re-reading the stuff here and elsewhere on it, I would put it at the top of the list for likely successful early introduction, as perhaps certification may be somewhat easier with the substantial use of many tried and tested helicopter systems?

And unlike Toyota and their Joby investment, they are experts in aviation, not a car manufacturer trying their hand at it, whilst for the Joby and several other designs they are full of rotating this and that, often heavy and complex parts.

(Video) AVL Facts4You | Fuel Cell System Testbed

The wing on the Piasecki should be relatively simple to rotate?

They are aiming at the same market as Beta Technologies, but perhaps their design is rather more conservative in using tested components?

However, what battery density they are assuming is not specified, whilst Beta are explicit.

What is your assessment?

Apologies if this is something which you have addressed in detail elsewhere, and I did not understand or have forgotten!

Posted by:Davemart |04 August 2022 at 02:05 AM

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (8)

The Piasecki PA-890 is planned to carry 2 compressed H2 tanks with 42.5 lbs each or 38.6 kg of H2 (assuming 50% conversion would equal around 600 kWh of energy).
https://newatlas.com/aircraft/piasecki-world-first-hydrogen-helicopter

The PA-890 is similar to the Karem Aircraft Future Attack Reconnaissance Aircraft (FARA) design submitted to the US Army and while not winning did exhibit strong interest by the DoD.
https://www.flightglobal.com/defence/karem-unveils-fara-design-for-us-army/134832.article

Posted by:Gryf |04 August 2022 at 12:38 PM

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (9)

Thanks Gryf

To put you on the spot, what is your assessment of the Piasecki vs Beta Technologies?

They are aiming at the same customers!

Posted by:Davemart |04 August 2022 at 01:30 PM

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (10)

Gryf:

Lots of good stuff in another link on your Piasecki one:

https://vtol.org/files/dmfile/h2-aeroworkshop_vfmj22.pdf

On pages 64-5:

' Dr. Kallo, CEO of H2Fly, attended from Germany. He presented
their 10-year experience in flying HFC aircraft, beginning with
the Antares DLR-H2, the first crewed, purely hydrogen-electric
aircraft, through the HY4, and onto the present development
partnership with Deutsche Aircraft. Their goal is to convert a
Dornier Do328 aircraft with a 1.5-MW fuel-cell powerplant with
1,100 lb (500 kg) of LH2 on board. Kallo shared valuable lessons
learned and made recommendations based on direct experience
in developing and testing HFC-powered aircraft. Kallo also
showed his vision of implementing hydrogen infrastructure,
along with a cost comparison between hydrogen and sustainable
aviation fuels (SAF), with hydrogen being the clear winner'

I'd love to see the breakdown of that comparison, but it is obviously one that Airbus has bought into.

Posted by:Davemart |04 August 2022 at 01:53 PM

(Video) Fuel cell for automotive and stationary applications

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (11)

The Piasecki is basically a helicopter with different flight characteristics than the Beta Alia-250 which is a VTOL/CTOL aircraft. While both could be used as Air taxis they really do have different missions. If you need hover capability, possibly for search and rescue than you need a helicopter. If you are going point to point, than the Beta Alia-250 works great. Though I do not have exact specs it looks like it has a Disk Loading like a CV-22 (20.9 lb/sq ft assuming 10 ft rotors), while the PA-890 is much better.

I am not a fan of Liquid H2 for aircraft. It is technically possible (the Soviet Union flew the TU-155 in 1988 and Lockheed did research on the Suntan CL-400 in 1956 . . Clarence โ€œKellyโ€ Johnson, one of the greatest aviation designers of all time reportedly told the Air Force, โ€œIโ€™m building you a dog,โ€ and recommended cancellation of the program.)
Liquid hydrogen is a terrific fuel on a per-weight basis, it isnโ€™t very dense. It thus occupies a much higher volume than other fuels. More volume means more skin area for the vehicle. This isnโ€™t that much of a problem for a rocket, however for an aircraft it means more drag and more fuel.
Safety, cost, reliability, flying around in a DO328 which is not very large and needs 2x1.5 MW fuel cells, BoP made of Inconel, Multi-Megawatt electric motors. Definitely take the R&D money from the German government if only for science value. By 2050, we may even be flying Aneutronic Fusion powered aircraft by then for all I know.

Posted by:Gryf |04 August 2022 at 02:43 PM

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Gryf:

I can understand the reasons for your reservations.
Certainly for longer distances Airbus designs have a radically different shape to current aircraft to cope with the greater volume of fuel needed.

https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-storage-basics-0

' Storing enough hydrogen on-board a vehicle to achieve a driving range of greater than 300 miles is a significant challenge. On a weight basis, hydrogen has nearly three times the energy content of gasoline (120 MJ/kg for hydrogen versus 44 MJ/kg for gasoline). However, on a volume basis the situation is reversed (8 MJ/liter for liquid hydrogen versus 32 MJ/liter for gasoline).'

However, Hypoint argue:

' โ€œReducing weight is the most important factor for enabling longer-distance air travel with fewer stops to refuel,โ€ said Dr Alex Ivanenko, founder and CEO of HyPoint.

And, fewer stops mean flying on hydrogen could get cheaper than using kerosene. HyPoint estimates an aircraft equipped with GTL tank technology could achieve as much as four times the range of conventional aircraft that use aviation fuel, cutting aircraft operating costs by an estimated 50% on a dollar-per-passenger-mile basis.

It would also make fuel cell systems viable for flights previously not deemed suitable. โ€œLonger-haul aircraft may be able to utilise hydrogen for the first time while eVTOL makers can effectively multiply their flight range and operational time,โ€ Ivanenko said.

Sergei Shubenkov, Co-founder and Head of R&D at HyPoint, further illustrated their reason behind working with GTL by comparison with an already hydrogen-fuelled plane. He said their internal analysis of a De Havilland Canada Dash 8 Q300, which seats 50 to 56 passengers using a standard liquid hydrogen tank, could achieve 5 hours of flight time or a maximum range of 2,640km. โ€œWith GTLโ€™s tank, it could fly for 8.5 hours or a max range of 4,488km.โ€

https://www.electrive.com/2022/03/31/hypoint-to-integrate-ultra-light-h2-tanks-into-fuel-cell-aircrafts/

So there are a whole bunch of trade offs between weight and volume, new aircraft shapes aiding drag, not to mention the efficiencies of fuel cell systems versus jet engines, which I certainly have no idea of how they will all pan out, even ignoring such trivia as actually getting a nice idea working.

But I am not sure that the folk at Airbus et al have definitely lost their marbles, although for sure they may be mistaken.

Posted by:Davemart |04 August 2022 at 03:32 PM

AVL to use TECO2030 fuel cell stacks in DemoTruck (13)

The efficiencies and power densities of fuel cells will be no match for Geared Turbofan with a STIG cycle.
https://www.mtu.de/newsroom/press/press-archive/press-archive-detail/blazing-new-trails-mtu-aero-engines-showcases-innovative-evolutionary-and-revolutionary-technologies-for-commercial-aircraft-at-the-2019-paris-air-show-1/
An Airbus 220 with the MTU turbofans (currently uses PW1500 Geared Turbofans which MTU has a 15% stake). This aircraft would seat 150 passengers, cruise at 470 knots and have a range of over 6,700 km.
So burning SAF, you may only get a 60% reduction of GHG compared to 75% GHG reduction for the hypothetical LH2 FC Aircraft that will have a per seat cost at least 3X (remember water vapor is a GHG).
Airbus obviously knows all of this, too.

Posted by:Gryf |04 August 2022 at 03:55 PM

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(Video) BLOCKCELL: A fuel cell system - how does it work?

Gryf:

From your link:
' To completely cut out NOx emissions as well, thereโ€™s no getting away from fuel cellsโ€”meaning flying with hydrogen. MTU has this technology in its sights, too.'

So they don't seem totally convinced that hydrogen and fuel cells are a non-flyer, so to speak.

Where do you get your figure of 3 times the seat costs for fuel cell planes?
Clearly no one is going to build them if that is the case, so presumably the likes of Airbus are working on very different figures.

I can't spot my reference off hand, but an analysis of the impact of water vapour on warming pretty much come up with 'dunno how big or long lasting it is', after suggesting some mitigation strategies such as re-routing and changing altitudes.

My comments are not to dismiss your skepticism, as you know loads more than I, and in any case I asked your opinion, but to clarify.

Posted by:Davemart |05 August 2022 at 01:30 AM

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Here is Airbus on their efforts to provide storage for liquid hydrogen:

https://www.airbus.com/en/newsroom/news/2021-12-how-to-store-liquid-hydrogen-for-zero-emission-flight

They fairly point out the issues of using hydrogen for flying as opposed to rockets, and are going for metal at first before trying to move to composites etc.

Will it work?
Dunno, but I think that the engineers there think they can make it work, or at least it is worth the attempt, as for really big companies as opposed to start ups which can take government money then fold, with the founders departing with loot, 'cough' Nikola, 'cough', they are going to get government money pumped into them whatever their technical choices, so they are going to do loads better if they pick one that works.

Of course, their R & D department may have managed to mislead senior management on the likelihood of success for their favoured options! :-(

Posted by:Davemart |05 August 2022 at 02:24 AM

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Davemart,

I have to say that I know more about fixed wing aircraft. There have been a number of attempts to build a faster helicopter while keeping the ability to hover. One problem with going faster with a helicopter is that as you go faster, you develop more lift with the upwind blade and less with the downwind blade. One way around this is to use counter rotating blades. See https://www.lockheedmartin.com/fvl/index.html Another way is use short wings that develop more lift as you go faster which is what Piasecki is doing. Personally, I think that the tilt rotor system that Bell/Boeing uses for the V-22 Osprey is a better design, Bell also has a a newer version the V-280 Valor. See https://www.bellflight.com/experience/future-vertical-lift. The V-22 had a lot of initial developmental problems but it seems to working OK now.

The Joby design uses 6 tilt rotors while other designs us a number of other design use a large number of vertical only rotors and separate forward light propellers. I suspect that one of the reasons for Joby's using 6 rotors is for redundancy so it will keep flying if one motor fails. The V-22 Osprey uses a complex shaft system between the 2 rotors so it will run on one engine. I do not know if it is possible to do an emergency auto rotate landing without power. I could have asked last week as they had an Osprey at the Oshkosh airshow. Maybe next time.

Posted by:sd |05 August 2022 at 06:40 AM

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The 3 times the seat costs for fuel cell planes is just a cursory comparison to an expensive 3 MW fuel cell powered Q400 which currently carries 50 passengers (a large part of the cabin will be filled by the LH2 tank, so maybe 35-40 passengers).
The A220 is a popular, very efficient 150 passenger aircraft with a low seat cost due to the P&W PW1500G Geared Turbofans. If these are enhanced with a STIG cycle they would be just as efficient as a fuel cell.
The Airbus reference points out many of the same issues I have stated. One particular point:
โ€œ . . . weight and volume are critical for aircraft. To go further still, we can dial down the temperature to -253ยฐC. Thatโ€™s when hydrogen transforms itself from a gas to a liquid, increasing its energy density even more. Returning to our example, four litres of liquid hydrogen would be the equivalent of one litre of standard jet fuel .โ€

Still 4:1 kerosene advantage. Those metallic tanks could be aluminum, but everything else must be steel or Inconel, i.e, valves, tubing, fittings,etc.
We have have not even started on infrastructure costs or additional expense of converting hydrogen from a gas to a liquid which would be substantial no matter what the color of H2.
Then we have โ€œSafetyโ€, think about flying an LH2 aircraft 40 years.

(Video) ๐™‰๐™€๐™๐™๐™๐™Š๐™‰๐™Ž - ๐™–๐™ฃ ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™š๐™ซ๐™ž๐™ฉ๐™–๐™—๐™ก๐™š ๐™ฉ๐™ค๐™ค๐™ก ๐™›๐™ค๐™ง ๐™ฎ๐™ค๐™ช๐™ง ๐™ง๐™š๐™จ๐™š๐™–๐™ง๐™˜๐™ ๐™ค๐™ฃ ๐™›๐™ช๐™š๐™ก ๐™˜๐™š๐™ก๐™ก

Posted by:Gryf |05 August 2022 at 09:03 AM

FAQs

What is the purpose of a fuel cell stack? โ€บ

The fuel cell stack is the heart of a fuel cell power system. It generates electricity in the form of direct current (DC) from electrochemical reactions that take place in the fuel cell.

What is stack efficiency of fuel cell? โ€บ

Theoretical maximum efficiency

According to the U.S. Department of Energy, fuel cells are generally between 40 and 60% energy efficient. This is higher than some other systems for energy generation. For example, the typical internal combustion engine of a car is about 25% energy efficient.

How does a hydrogen fuel stack work? โ€บ

Fuel cell stack: An assembly of individual membrane electrodes that use hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity. Fuel filler: A nozzle from a fuel dispenser attaches to the receptacle on the vehicle to fill the tank. Fuel tank (hydrogen): Stores hydrogen gas onboard the vehicle until it's needed by the fuel cell.

How do you fuel cells work? โ€บ

A fuel, such as hydrogen, is fed to the anode, and air is fed to the cathode. In a hydrogen fuel cell, a catalyst at the anode separates hydrogen molecules into protons and electrons, which take different paths to the cathode. The electrons go through an external circuit, creating a flow of electricity.

How long does a fuel cell stack last? โ€บ

The fuel cell stacks are designed to last the lifetime of the vehicle, about 150,000โ€“200,000 miles. At the end of its lifespan, the fuel cell will be disassembled and the materials recycled, similar to what happens with vehicle components today. A fuel cell stack is about the size of a roll-aboard suitcase.

How many fuel cells are in a stack? โ€บ

The SOFC stack consisted of 1152 tubular cells, in 48 cell bundles of 24 cells each, with eight cells in electrical series and three in parallel.

How do you calculate stack efficiency? โ€บ

The approximate efficiency for a fuel cell stack that is producing electrical power can be calculated by dividing the operating voltage by the thermodynamic voltage.

How much hydrogen does a fuel cell use per kWh? โ€บ

PEM fuel cells consume about 0.8 Nm3 of hydrogen per kWh produced. A car needs 1.6 kilogram of hydrogen for every 100 miles covered.

How many kWh does it take to produce 1kg of hydrogen? โ€บ

How much electricity is needed to make hydrogen? A completely efficient electrolysis system would require 39 kWh of electricity to produce 1 kg of hydrogen.

How far can you drive on a gallon of hydrogen? โ€บ

Typically, a fuel-cell system is twice as efficient as a gasoline system. Most of the fuel-cell vehicles coming to market in the next few years will be able to deliver close to 70 miles per kilogram of fuel. That's the equivalent of 70 miles per gallon.

What is the disadvantage of using hydrogen for fuel? โ€บ

Expensive to manufacture due the high cost of catalysts (platinum) Lack of infrastructure to support the distribution of hydrogen. A lot of the currently available fuel cell technology is in the prototype stage and not yet validated. Hydrogen is expensive to produce and not widely available.

How much does a gallon of hydrogen fuel cost? โ€บ

Hydrogen fuel is much more efficient than gasoline, but it's also four times more expensive, roughly equivalent to about $16 a gallon.

Can fuel cells run forever? โ€บ

Fuel cells can generate power almost indefinitely, as long as they have fuel to use.

What are the four types of fuel cells? โ€บ

Types of Fuel Cells
  • Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. ...
  • Direct methanol fuel cells. ...
  • Alkaline fuel cells. ...
  • Phosphoric acid fuel cells. ...
  • Molten carbonate fuel cells. ...
  • Solid oxide fuel cells. ...
  • Reversible fuel cells.

What are the limitations of fuel cell? โ€บ

What are the Disadvantages of Hydrogen Fuel Cells?
  • Hydrogen Extraction. ...
  • Investment is Required. ...
  • Cost of Raw Materials. ...
  • Regulatory Issues. ...
  • Overall Cost. ...
  • Hydrogen Storage. ...
  • Infrastructure. ...
  • Highly Flammable.

Do hydrogen fuel cells need maintenance? โ€บ

Fuel cells have no moving parts, which makes them potentially much more reliable than combustion engines and wind turbines (and significantly quieter in operation). Stationary fuel cells, in particular, need very little maintenance (with servicing required once every one to three years).

Do fuel cells go flat? โ€บ

Think of fuel cells as batteries that never run flat. Instead of slowly depleting the chemicals inside them (as normal batteries do), fuel cells run on a steady supply of hydrogen and keep making electricity for as long as there's fuel in the tank.

Why are hydrogen fuel cells not widely used? โ€บ

Hydrogen in vehicles must be compressed in expensive high-pressure tanks, which requires โ€” you guessed it โ€” energy. Current hydrogen vehicles use fuel cells to convert the chemical energy to power. Fuel cells are very costly because they are complex and require expensive materials such as platinum.

Are fuel cell stacks in series or parallel? โ€บ

Most fuel cell stacks have the cells connected in series, but stacks can be designed in parallel to increase the total output current. When considering the stack design, it is preferable to not have cells with a small or very large active area because the cells can result in resistive losses.

Who is the largest manufacturer of fuel cells? โ€บ

Largest hydrogen fuel cell companies by market cap
#NameC.
1Plug Power 1PLUG๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
2Ballard Power Systems 2BLDP๐Ÿ‡จ๐Ÿ‡ฆ
3Doosan Fuel Cell 3336260.KS๐Ÿ‡ฐ๐Ÿ‡ท Korea
4Nikola 4NKLA๐Ÿ‡บ๐Ÿ‡ธ
4 more rows

How much Stacks is 1000 blocks? โ€บ

How many stacks are 1000 blocks? In Minecraft, 1000 blocks fit into 15 full stacks and 40 extra blocks. That's because every stack contains 64 blocks.

How much hydrogen does a 1 MW electrolyser produce? โ€บ

Hydrogenics will provide a 1 MW electrolyser that, powered by intermittent renewable energy, will produce 200 m3/h of hydrogen.

How do you calculate stack size? โ€บ

You could have a look at the assembler code - it will start by pusihing one or two registers onto the stack, then subtract something from the current stack pointer. 8k=8*1024=8192-(8+6)=8178 bytes remaining..

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In any of the latest fuel cell cars, 1 kg of hydrogen will let you drive 97 โ€“ 100 km.

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Today, renewable hydrogen from electrolysis costs about $6/kilogram (kg).

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An energy storage system connects to rooftop solar panels to power a home using hydrogen fuel cells. Spotted: Many of us dream of living off-grid, powering our homes with solar power. In order to make this a reality, a home solar system needs a way to store the energy generated when the sun is not out.

What is the cost of 1 Litre of hydrogen? โ€บ

With a simple technology, all existing vehicles can be modified to run on hydrogen. The cost of hydrogen as fuel is very cheap when compare to other fuels. Hydrogen gas costs just Rs. 30 per liter making it the cheapest option that India is not considering.

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'The planned 10 MW PEM electrolyser will be able to produced 4500 kg of hydrogen per day. That is enough hydrogen to power for example around 900 cars or 50 buses, or even 50 trains with fuel cell drive,' says Heinrich Gรคrtner, CEO of H-TEC Systems.

What is the cheapest way to produce hydrogen gas? โ€บ

The carbon monoxide is reacted with water to produce additional hydrogen. This method is the cheapest, most efficient, and most common. Natural gas reforming using steam accounts for the majority of hydrogen produced in the United States annually.

How much does a full tank of hydrogen fuel cost? โ€บ

Hydrogen fuel cell cars now average between 312 miles and 380 miles in range, according to the EPA. They will cost about $80 to refuel from empty (most drivers don't let the tank run down to empty before they refuel, so end up refueling at a cost of $55 to $65).

How much does a hydrogen car cost to fill up? โ€บ

It could cost a fair amount to fill up a Toyota Mirai; the average cost of hydrogen fuel is $16 per kilogram. Since the Mirai holds an average of 5 kilograms, you would be paying around $80. However, it should also be noted that hydrogen fuel is much more efficient than gasoline.

How much does it cost to fill up a hydrogen car tank? โ€บ

It costs about $16 for one kilogram of hydrogen gas.

Are hydrogen fuel cells better than batteries? โ€บ

Hydrogen is significantly more energy dense than batteries, which means a fuel-cell pushed powertrain will weigh less. To illustrate, for a 800 kms range truck, the difference can be as much as 2 tons. Consequently, fuel cell technology allows for longer driving ranges and heavier payloads.

Which is better electric vehicles vs hydrogen fuel cell? โ€บ

Hydrogen cars are also much faster to refuel than electric cars, while also offering greater ranges than electric vehicles. For example, Renault's Kangoo Z.E. Hydrogen and Master Z.E. Hydrogen have range extender fuel cells that deliver ranges of over 350 kilometres and charge times of just 5-10 minutes.

Which is better EV or hydrogen? โ€บ

However, as hydrogen cars densely pack their energy storage, they're usually able to achieve longer distances. While most fully electric vehicles can travel between 100-200 miles on a single charge, hydrogen ones can get to 300 miles, according to AutomotiveTechnologies.

Will hydrogen ever be cheaper than gas? โ€บ

In 2021, experts forecast that hydrogen would be cheaper than natural gas by 2025. This would certainly be the start of cost-effective FCEV usage.

Can I make my own hydrogen fuel? โ€บ

Yes, it's possible to generate hydrogen in a science fair kind of way by electrolysing water. A liter of water will get you about 111 grams of hydrogen if you can capture it all. You would probably need one of these industrial electrolysis units to actually get pure enough hydrogen for your car.

Will hydrogen cars overtake electric? โ€บ

A new study published in the peer-reviewed journal Nature has confirmed what common sense has made clear for years: Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles aren't likely to catch up to battery-electric vehicles โ€“ even for commercial trucks.

Can fuel cells explode? โ€บ

Hydrogen used in the fuel cells is a very flammable gas and can cause fires and explosions if it is not handled properly.

Can fuel cells power a house? โ€บ

Long used in industrial settings and automobiles, this is a technology that may finally be ready for individual homes, as well. Fuel cells can generate hydrogen from either electrical grid power or from other power sources like solar panels or wind generators.

What will replace fuel in the future? โ€บ

Hydrogen fuel cell tech can revolutionise mobility

The automotive sector in particular has sought to evolve to renewable energy sources and reduce its carbon footprint. Against this backdrop, hydrogen fuel cell technology is emerging globally as a valuable multisector alternative for fossil fuels.

Which fuel cell has highest efficiency? โ€บ

Alkaline Fuel Cells

Operating at 60-70ยบC (140-158ยบF), AFCs are among the most efficient type of fuel cells, reaching up to 60% efficiency and up to 87% combined heat and power.

Which fuel cell has the highest operating temperature? โ€บ

High-temperature fuel cells: Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), with a molten carbonate eutectic as electrolyte, working between 600ยฐC and 650ยฐC.

Can you recharge a fuel cell? โ€บ

But unlike a battery, you can refuel a spent fuel cell. Just add a bit more fuel, and you're ready to generate more electricity. Hydrogen fuel cells only produce two byproducts -- heat and water. The fuel cells we'll use to charge our portable electronics are more likely to rely on fuels like butane.

What is the lifespan of a fuel cell? โ€บ

The fuel cell stacks are designed to last the lifetime of the vehicle, about 150,000โ€“200,000 miles. At the end of its lifespan, the fuel cell will be disassembled and the materials recycled, similar to what happens with vehicle components today. A fuel cell stack is about the size of a roll-aboard suitcase.

What are the two most significant challenges for fuel cells? โ€บ

Reducing cost and improving durability are the two most significant challenges to fuel cell commercialization. Fuel cell systems must be cost-competitive with, and perform as well or better than, traditional power technologies over the life of the system.

Why are we not using fuel cells? โ€บ

The fuel cell can be dangerous due to its highly flammable nature. This makes it a dangerous fuel to have in a vehicle if it crashes. Last but not the least, the price point. Let alone IC engines, Hydrogen-powered cars are significantly costlier than electric vehicles, almost twice the asking price.

What is a fuel cell stack assembly? โ€บ

A single fuel cell consists of a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and two flow-field plates delivering about 0.5 and 1V voltage (too low for most applications). Just like batteries, individual cells are stacked to achieve a higher voltage and power. This assembly of cells is called a fuel cell stack, or just a stack.

How does an electrolyzer stack work? โ€บ

An electrolyser consists of a conductive electrode stack separated by a membrane to which a high voltage and current is applied. This causes an electric current in the water which causes it to break down into its components: hydrogen and oxygen.

What is an electrolyzer stack? โ€บ

Produce, store and utilize hydrogen through the electrolysis of water. With the help of an electrolyzer, we can create hydrogen and oxygen from a pure water supply and electrical current.

What are the limitations of fuel cell? โ€บ

What are the Disadvantages of Hydrogen Fuel Cells?
  • Hydrogen Extraction. ...
  • Investment is Required. ...
  • Cost of Raw Materials. ...
  • Regulatory Issues. ...
  • Overall Cost. ...
  • Hydrogen Storage. ...
  • Infrastructure. ...
  • Highly Flammable.

How do I select a fuel cell? โ€บ

Choose the right product for the application

Buses and trucks require long duty cycles. Therefore, fuel cell durability and performance over the long-term is key. A fuel cell system designed for a car will not meet the requirements of a heavy-duty truck. Simply put, heavy-duty vehicles need heavy-duty fuel cells.

What are the three main components of a fuel cell? โ€บ

The three-component fuel cell means a conventional fuel cell which is the configuration consists of anode, electrolyte and cathode; while the single-component fuel cell uses only one component that can function as the electrodes and electrolyte simultaneously.

How much hydrogen does a 1 MW electrolyser produce? โ€บ

Hydrogenics will provide a 1 MW electrolyser that, powered by intermittent renewable energy, will produce 200 m3/h of hydrogen.

How many cells does an electrolyzer stack? โ€บ

Alkaline Water Electrolyzer Stack - 20 Cell.

What is the difference between fuel cell and electrolyzer? โ€บ

In a fuel cell, the anode is where hydrogen gas is consumed, and in an electrolyzer, the hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode. The disadvantage of electrolyzers is the requirement of electrical energy to complete the reaction.

How much voltage does a hydrogen fuel cell produce? โ€บ

A typical hydrogen fuel cell produces 0.5 V to 0.8 V per cell. To increase the voltage individual cells can be connected in series. This arrangement is called a fuel cell stack.

Can fuel cells be connected in parallel? โ€บ

Most fuel cell stacks have the cells connected in series, but stacks can be designed in parallel to increase the total output current.

Can I make my own hydrogen fuel? โ€บ

Yes, it's possible to generate hydrogen in a science fair kind of way by electrolysing water. A liter of water will get you about 111 grams of hydrogen if you can capture it all. You would probably need one of these industrial electrolysis units to actually get pure enough hydrogen for your car.

What is the best electrolyte for HHO production? โ€บ

The best electrolyte for HHO is Potassium Hydroxide - KOH:

- Produces more HHO than other type of electrolyte; - Electrodes stay clean - non sediment electrolyte; - Lowers the freezing point of water.

How much water does an electrolyser need? โ€บ

On a per unit basis, thermoelectric power generation for electrolysis will on average withdraw approximately 1100 gallons of cooling water and will consume 27 gallons of water as a feedstock and coolant for every kilogram of hydrogen that is produced using an electrolyzer that has an efficiency of 75%.

How much hydrogen does an electrolyser produce? โ€บ

Atmospheric Alkaline Electrolyser

A Series electrolysers can produce up to 3,880 Nm3/h of hydrogen or just over 8 ton per day.

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